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When Readers Struggle

Teaching That Works

By Irene Fountas, Gay Su Pinnell

When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works is a comprehensive resource on struggling readers. It’s filled with specific teaching ideas for helping children in kindergarten through Grade 3 who are having difficulty in reading and writing.

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Full Description

When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works is a comprehensive resource on struggling readers. It’s filled with specific teaching ideas for helping children in kindergarten through Grade 3 who are having difficulty in reading and writing.

We want these young students to think and behave like effective readers who not only solve words skillfully but comprehend deeply and read fluently. To achieve our goal, we need to place them in situations in which they can succeed and then provide powerful teaching. Gay Su Pinnell and Irene Fountas offer numerous examples and descriptions of instruction that can help initially struggling readers become strategic readers. When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works focuses on small-group intervention and individual interactions during reading and writing. Pinnell and Fountas also illustrate how to closely observe readers to make the best possible teaching decisions for them as well as how to support struggling readers in whole-class settings.

Find immediately usable answers to your questions about struggling readers from educators you trust. Read Pinnell and Fountas’s When Readers Struggle: Teaching That Works and find teaching that works for struggling readers.

Additional Resource Information

(click any section below to continue reading)


SECTION 1: When Readers Struggle

  1. A Comprehensive Approach to Literacy Success
  2. Effective Readers: What Do They Do?
  3. Going Off Track: Why and How?
  4. Reading Behavior: What Does It Tell Us?
  5. Change Over Time: Processing Systems in the Making
  6. Text Matters: A Ladder to Success

SECTION 2: Language Systems and Literacy Learning

  1. Language Matters: Talking, Reading, and Writing
  2. Words Matter: Building Power in Vocabulary
  3. The Phonological Base for Learning to Read and Write

SECTION 3: Learning Written Language Systems

  1. Learning About Print: Early Reading Behaviors
  2. Learning to Solve Words: Effective and Efficient Phonics
  3. Building and Using a Repertoire of Words

SECTION 4: Teaching that Works

  1. Extending Reading Power Through Writing
  2. Teaching for Problem Solving while Processing Texts: Early Reading Behavior and Searching for Information
  3. Teaching for Independence in Processing Texts: Solving Words and Monitoring and Correcting Behaviors
  4. Teaching for Fluency in Processing Texts
  5. Teaching for Comprehending: Thinking Before, During, and After Reading
  6. Working Successfully with English Language Learners
  7. Engaging Readers' Attention and Memory in Successful Learning
  8. Keys to Effective Intervention: Success for All Children

Appendix A: Ways of Thinking About Text Reading: Observing for Evidence 
Appendix B: Guide for Observing and Noting Reading Behaviors 
Appendix c: Coding and Scoring Errors at-a-Glance 
Appendix D: Verbal Path 
Appendix E: Text Gradient 
Appendix G: Uppercase and Lowercase Letter Recognition Sheets 
Appendix H: High-Frequency Word Lists 
Appendix I: Alphabet Linking Chart 
Appendix J: Consonant Cluster Linking Chart


Leveled Literacy Intervention Children's Book References

Professional References



Supporting Materials

  • Study Guide
  • Powerpoint Slides to Accompany WRS Study Guide
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