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Supporting Materials

Guided Reading: The Romance and the Reality

This article was published in The Reading Teacher Vol. 66 Issue 4 Dec 2012 / Jan 2013. In this article Fountas and Pinnell examine the growth and impact of guided reading, small group teaching for differentiated instruction in reading that was inspired by their early publications. Guided reading has shifted the lens in the teaching of reading to a focus on a deeper understanding of how readers build effective processing systems over time and an examination of the critical role of texts and expert teaching in the process. In this article Fountas and Pinnell realize that there is always more to be accomplished to ensure that every child is successfully literate. The exciting romance with guided reading is well underway, and the reality is that continuous professional learning is needed to ensure that this instructional approach is powerful.

» Read Guided Reading: The Romance and the Reality


The Critical Role of Text Complexity in Teaching Children to Read

In this downloadable white paper by Fountas and Pinnell they examine several factors that, according to research, make a difference in students' literacy learning. Each factor is highly related to the selection and use of texts in classrooms, including books for whole-group instruction, small-group instruction, and individual teaching.

Recently text complexity has gained more attention. The importance of text complexity, along with the suggestion to employ "close reading," has been recognized in the Common Core State Standards (2010) and in numerous, often conflicting, interpretations. Fountas and Pinnell believe that students should have numerous opportunities to engage with complex, grade-appropriate fiction and nonfiction texts in both whole-class and small-group settings and that students need to comprehend these texts in a deep way.

» Read The Critical Role of Text Complexity in Teaching Children to Read


Instructional Level Expectations for Reading

The F&P Text Level Gradient™—Revision to Recommended Grade-Level Goals
This downloadable white paper lays out the rationale behind our recent decision to make minor adjustments to the recommended grade-level goals on the F&P Text Level Gradient™.

Fountas and Pinnell have designed a general Instructional Level Expectations for Reading chart to demonstrate the recommended goals for each grade level. However, based on your school/district requirements and professional teacher judgment, decide whether the updated Fountas & Pinnell Recommended Grade-Level Goals (rev. 2012) on the F&P Text Level Gradient™ fit your needs as a district. You may decide that the Fountas & Pinnell Recommended Grade-Level Goals (2009) fit your situation better. Either way, you can continue using the Guided Reading section of The Continuum of Literacy Learning (©2011), as no changes to the text characteristics or the behaviors and understandings associated with each Fountas & Pinnell level have changed.

F&P Text Level Gradient™
Instructional Level Expectations for Reading, 2009
Instructional Level Expectations for Reading, 2012
Text Level Ladder of Progress 2012


Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) & Benchmark Assessment System (BAS)

10 Month Progress Monitoring by Instructional Text Level Goals

Benchmark Assessment System and Leveled Literacy Intervention in Your Response to Intervention (RTI) Plan

Determining a Student’s Instructional, Independent, or Hard Reading Levels

Fountas & Pinnell Recommended Oral Reading Rates Chart

Systems of Strategic Actions and the Teaching-Learning Cycle


Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)

Comparing Guided Reading and Leveled Literacy Intervention

LLI Overview of behaviors and understandings to notice, teach, and support as children progress through Levels A through N

Alignment with NAEP Framework for Assessment of Reading

Keys to Effective Intervention

Administrator's Fidelity Tool for LLI (Primary)
Administrator's Fidelity Tool for LLI (Intermediate)


Benchmark Assessment System (BAS) – 2nd Edition, ©2011

Optional Literacy Assessment Criteria   BAS 1 | BAS 2

Instructional Level Expectations for Reading


Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) & Reading Recovery®

Heinemann is proud to have been the distributor of Marie Clay’s work in North America for the last 20 years and an enthusiastic, gold-level sponsor of Reading Recovery® Council of North America (RRCNA) for the last 10 years.

The Fountas & Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention System has the potential to broaden the effect of Reading Recovery® in your school. Click on the link below to see how LLI and RR could be used together to serve more low achieving children in schools.

The Advantages of Using Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) and Reading Recovery® Together